I had a problem similar to this today, but the posted fix is outdated.
The error I saw was:
mikes@ubuntu12-04:~/matlab $ matlab
/usr/local/bin/matlab: 1: /usr/local/MATLAB/R2012a/bin/util/oscheck.sh: /lib/libc.so.6: not found
This is on a 32-bit installation of Ubuntu 12.04 LTS, and the required symlink was:
sudo ln -s /lib/i386-linux-gnu/libc-2.15.so /lib/libc.so.6
Matlab now launches without errors.